A power supply is used for providing regulated voltage to other components. Power supplies come in various shapes and designs. There are different types of power supplies. There are those that are meant to be used with welding machines, electronics such as computers and TVs and heavy equipment.
Knowing the types of power supplies will help in determining your choice. Buying the wrong power supply unit is a waste of time and money. Below is an insight on the various types of power supplies.
High voltage power supply is highly recommended for equipment that use a lot of voltage such as x-ray generators and electron microscopes. This is because they produce hundreds of volts that can damage devices that don’t have the capacity to withstand such a capacity. You should be very careful when using this type of a power supply. A single mistake such as touching parts that are not insulated can lead to fatal accidents.
In fact, high voltage power supply is covered with a thick insulating material to avoid shortages. This type of power supply has a special output connector for units that exceed 20Kv that has been certified by the federal government. Old models of high voltage power supplies can be modified to work as amplifiers.
This particular type of power supply is used with computers. If you experience irregular power outages, you need to invest in an uninterruptible power supply. This device has an in-built battery that gets charged when the power supply is connected to a power source. In the event of a blackout, you will have ample time to shut down your computer safely. In fact, you can even finish your task because the battery keeps enough power to last for quite a number of minutes.
Without this power supply, your computer is at the risk of being damaged by blackouts. Such power outages cause the hard disk to start malfunctioning and eventually crush. Some UPSs come with internal combustion engines that keep your computer powered even when electricity has been disconnected. Such engines are usually in standby mode when AC power is available. In such a case, you will never be stopped when you’re in the middle of a task.
A programmable power supply unit has an internal micro-computer that manages how the device functions. Old models have an analogue input while digital models come with an interface that makes it possible to operate them using a remote control. The remote actually is almost similar to that of TV. The remote control lets you regulate frequency, voltage and current. This type of power supply is recommended for automated systems, x-ray generators and fabrication of semiconductors.
This type of power supply gets AC energy, rectifies and filters it to get power in DC form. The DC energy is then switched on and off at a skyrocketing frequency so that it can make it through a transformer or an inductor that is placed within the system. The frequency of switching varies between 10 KHz to 1MHz. The process requires the use of capacitors and resistors to filter the energy for the sake of getting DC voltage.
Switched-mode power supplies can hardly damage your components because they are designed to generate a specified amount of voltage. Their voltage supply therefore remains the same throughout their operation. They have a special indicator that keeps track of voltage needs of all components. The power supply increases its voltage when it detects that the components are consuming more energy. This type of power supply is very common in computers probably because it’s designed to switch itself off when voltage is hiked abnormally to keep the system safe from any damages.
An AC power supply is connected to a wall socket to get energy in AC form. The power is not converted into a different form but is filtered to reduce it to standard voltage so that it can be safely used by electronic gadgets.
In this type of power supply, energy is supplied to the components in excess. The device has an active transistor circuit whose main function is to cut off the excess volts that are not used by the components. The transistor circuit is actually the linear regulator. It allows a component that is connected to the power supply to draw all the volts it needs without any limitations and drops the ones that have not been used.
The excess volts in return generate a lot of heat around the power supply. This heat is a problem because it can cause the entire unit to breakdown due to overheating. A heat sink is therefore needed to keep the heat at bay. Such power supplies are therefore cumbersome to operate because they are heavy due to the thick aluminum metal that is used in the heat sink.
When a DC power supply is connected to an AC energy source, a transformer must be fitted into the circuit to filter AC power. The resulting voltage can be higher or lower than the initial voltage. A bridge rectifier is connected to the transformer to cause voltage to be supplied in varied amounts. An electronic filter is provided to eliminate the varying AC voltage. But some of the energy still survives from the filter and that is what is known as ripple. A power supply that has a higher ripple effect does not need a filter.